Pests, Diseases, and Other Plant Problems: Hemlock wooly adelgids may be found on the foliage and suck the sap from the tree. Slater Museum of Natural History1500 N. Warner St. #1088Tacoma, WA 98416253.879.3356, Copyright 2022 University of Puget Sound, A Catalogue of Butterflies of the United States and Canada, J. Pelham, 2012 (external site), An Identification Manual to the Small Mammals of British Columbia (external site), Silphidae of Washington State (external site), Terrestrial Page (from backup, external link). Defoliating insects such as the larvae from caterpillars may kill the tree if the damage is severe. Oregon State Univ. Deep shade (Less than 2 hours to no direct sunlight), Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day), Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours). The western hemlock may also germinateon the surface of the soil and requires cold stratification. Diagnostic Characters: Western Hemlock is usually recognized by its drooping top and its different-sized needles in flat sprays. The male and female cones first appear in the spring. firs. As carbon dioxide enters the leaves or needles through these pores, water vapor exits. Distribution: Western Hemlock occurs from the southern coast of Alaska to the northern coast of California and the Cascade Range of central Oregon. They are also found in the Rocky Mountains ofsoutheastern British Columbia, northern Idaho, and southwestern Montana. Needles: In some ancient North-American traditions, western hemlock was an important herb for women. You can often It's your choice and neither choice is unreasonable. 294344) and in Scotland (No. Cones turn from green to brown over time. The species name, heterophylla, is Greek for "variable leaves" which refers to the variable length of the western hemlock needles. The
They are much smaller than Douglas-fir cones and larger than the few-scaled Western Red Cedar cones.Western Hemlock is an important tree in the timber industry, and its cambium and needles have served as food for native cultures. It's an A-Z tree guide in your pocket. This enables western hemlock to make use of whatever meager sunlight penetrates the forest canopy. white lines on the lower pulp is used to make high-quality paper and is the source for making (Notice the long and short needles growing right next to each other, a key identifier of western hemlock.). The tree has a shallow root system and can be prone to wind damage and is intolerant to drought. N.C. Native to north-west America, western hemlock was introduced to Britain in the 1852 by botanist John Jeffrey,and is now one of the most common conifers found in the UK. Introduced: Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, and Norway. Coeur d'Alene, ID 83815, https://www.fs.usda.gov/detail/ipnf/learning/nature-science/?cid=fsm9_019128. The cones
These trees have characteristically long, drooping branches. In Alaska, boughs of western hemlock are used to collect herring eggs. It grows well in acidic soils and needs moist to wet soils with good drainage. Size at 150 years: 120-180 feet tall, 3-4 feet in diameter Western Hemlock has been grown successfully in the laboratory using micropropagation techniques. The needles have It is a prized ornamental in Great Britain. The main requirement is that the rooting medium stay moist. ( Needles: 1/4 to 3/4" long. Cones are small and pendulous, with thin, flexible scales. elevations of western Oregon and Washington, especially thriving in wet Sun, but can take considerable shade..for decades in a forest. Bark: Spring, Summer, Fall, and WinterFoliage: Spring, Summer, Fall, and WinterFruit: Spring,Summer, and Fall. It is shade tolerant, Here's how: On all native trees of the Pacific NW, each leaf or needle has many thousands of microscopic pores called stomata. ) or https:// means you've safely Western hemlock is the NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to The western hemlockis a member of the Pinaceae or pine family. Delivery is free. In the presence of the full sun, they grow much faster. on large trees. They are the trees that have a droopy shape, like this: Western hemlocks are adapted to growing in the shade. By studying the different sizes of growth rings you can often tell when a tree was growing in shade vs. sun. rounded. Deer, mice, and birds eat the seeds from the cones. It is commonly used as pulpwood.
Each needle has two white stripes on the underside.
Propagationby layering and cuttings has also been reported. Just so you know, western hemlocks have not evolved to be totally defenseless against drought. Broadly conical in habit with a narrow crown, mature trees can grow to 45m (taller in their native habitat), and have characteristic long, drooping branch tips. Immature cones are green and mature to grey-brown, with thin, papery scales. It is the best source of pulpwood for use in paper production and is also used to make cellophane. orientation of western hemlock needles. At any rate, the roots of western hemlock are used to moist soil, with little sunlight penetrating to the forest floor where these trees live. on the twig, but irregular and variable in length. WTU Herbarium Image Collection, Plants of Washington, Burke Museum, E-Flora BC, Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia, USDA Forest Service-Fire Effects Information System, Virginia Tech ID Fact Sheet+ Landowner Fact Sheet, Native Plants Network, Propagation Protocol Database, Native American Ethnobotany, University of Michigan, Dearborn, Pingback: Tree Maintenance Tips - Get to Know Your Trees - NW Tree Specialists. Dense and graceful, the western hemlock is a handsome tree with drooping branches of soft needles. Tree Maintenance Tips - Get to Know Your Trees - NW Tree Specialists, Western Maidenhair Fern, Adiantum aleuticum. Names: The genus name Tsuga comes from Japanese words meaning mother and tree.The species name heterophylla, literally means different leaves. **Use of articles and photos on this site is permitted for educational purposes only. Introduced in the 1800s, the tree casts such heavy shade that not much can live beneath it. Needle-like leaves are soft, flat, with rounded tips, and two white bands on the underside. Western hemlocks are drought-sensitive. Woodland Trust (Enterprises) Limited, registered in England (No. United States government.
Parasites such as hemlock dwarf mistletoe can rob the tree of nutrients. Western hemlock They are easily recognized in the field by the drooping leader, the tip of the tree. It is not related to the highly toxic herb hemlock, but shares its name due to the similar smell. All of the other conifers with similar needles have a stiffer, straight-up leader. Life Span: 400 years In Alaska, the boughs are placed in the water when herring are spawning, and the needles give the resulting egg dishes a distinctive taste. It grows on fairly dry to wet sites and is very shade tolerant. The lumber is sold as Hem-Fir and is used for making treated lumber. Hemlock trees are sometimes called Hemlock Spruces to differentiatethem from the herbaceous Poison Hemlock, which is in the Parsley Family. The different sized needles of Western Hemlock. Look out for: the needles along the sides of the twig which are longer than those on the top. Needles in more or less 2 ranks, although arising from all around the stem, 5-20 mm long, equally broad from base to apex, rounded apex, finely dentate margin, very short petiole, shiny dark green and grooved above, with 2 broad whitish bands below with indistinct edges; persist 4-7 years. It is mainly grown for timber and wood pulp in the UK, although it is also planted as an ornamental tree in parks and gardens. Or, if you appreciate the beauty of the hemlocks in your yard and want them to stay alive, you might want to intervene with a water hose. Cones: It can grow and reproduce in the dense shade of overstory trees. The air underneath each needle is slightly cooler and more moist from the shade. This picture shows the bottoms of the needles. They have fine hairs, and the leaf scars are rounded. You will often see Images protected Woodland Trust. Want to plant 500+ trees on at least half a hectare? If the soil in your backyard is getting baked, consider watering any western hemlocks growing there! heterogeneous, you can remember the scientific name. The stomata on the needles are positioned to avoid excessive evaporation and help the tree survive minor droughts. Summer tree identification: can you name these nine trees? The seeds from the conesare a food source for Chickadees, Pine Siskins, and Deer Mice. These trees are native to north-west America. The western hemlock is a favorite habitat for many birds. They measure 0.25 to 0.75 inches long with rounded tips. cellophane, rayon, and plastics. The Woodland Trust and Woodland Trust Nature Detectives logos are registered trademarks. The western hemlock was introduced to the UK in the 1800s. Conifer, evergreen tree, 60-100(150) ft [18-30(46) m], narrowly pyramidal when young, pendulous branches. names: Pacific hemlock and West We have single trees and tree packs to meet your needs, from wildlife to woodfuel. The tree has variable needle lengths thataredark green to blue grayish-green, and itproduces abundant small brown seed cones. The genus name, Tsuga, originated from the Japanese word that means "mother" and "tree." Uses: They soon fell off and, the next spring, there was no growth whatsoever. And nearly all of the stomata are on the bottom side. Queen Victoria loved western hemlock so much that she asked for its name to be changed to Tsuga albertiana, in honour of her husband, Albert. grow after the nurselog rotted away. Discover our recent challenges and successes and how you can help. Western hemlock wood is commonly used for roofing and boxes as it holds nails well without splitting. This refers to the different lengths of needles found along a branch. Some small mammals nibble on the bark, and deer and elk browse and enjoythe foliage. Flat, flexible, 2-ranked, and rounded at tip. Seedlings typically grow on decaying wood and grow slowly in shade. When the sun is out, the air on top of the needles gets slightly warmer and drier than the air in the shadows beneath the needles. An official website of the Carbon is a key ingredient in the sugars that trees manufacture in photosynthesis. Tagged: wetern hemlock, hemlock, tsuga occidentalis, stomata, stomates, evaporation, transpiration, photosynthesis, carbon cycle, needles, irrigation, watering, landscaping, drought resistance, drought sensitivity, drought intolerant, drought intolerance, Photos and text by Cliff Cantor, except for photos otherwise creditedCopyright 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021, 2022 by Cliff Cantor, The tree trade Norway maple, grand fir, Sitka spruce in Norway; Norway spruce in the Pacific NW. It stuck for a while but Tsuga heterophylla, is now used. If you look closely in the Other planted hemlock-spruces. A cone contains 30 to 40 seeds. Department of Horticulture at Oregon State University, bark is grayish-brown, scaly, and fissured, foliage is finely textured and fern-like and droops at the ends, flat needles, spirally arranged with different sizes alternating on the same stem, lower surface of the needle has two white broad bands and unclear green margins. Cones are unstalked.Identified in winter by: its evergreen features which are present year-round. You would be justified in thinking that, if a native tree can't survive without your help, let it die. Best suited to moister climates, western hemlock has rapid growth and regenerates freely in a wide range of upland forests. Take a look: In the picture on the right,distinctive pairs of white stripes are comprised of thousands of microscopic pores. (Tsuga heterophylla) Cones begin to mature in August; seeds are fully ripe by mid to late September but cones do not open until October. The trunk of the tree has been known to reachup to 9 feet in diameter. Relationships: Of the 10 species of this genus, 6 are native to eastern Asia, and 2 to eastern North America. The tallest Western Hemlock is over 240 feet (73m) tall. Western hemlocks are abundant west of the Cascades. United States. Porcupines and Douglas Squirrels and other mammals also eat the bark. Take part in our Nature's Calendar survey. The oldest are over 1200 years old. Growth:Western Hemlocktypically grows 150-195 feet (45-60m). Its crushed needles smell like grapefruit. Use by People: Western Hemlock is the second most important timber tree in the northwest. As they mature, the cone is a small light brown elliptical or egg-shaped seed cone and has ovate scales. One of the simplest ways of reducing water loss is easily visible to the naked eye on western hemlock and a few other Pacific NW conifers: Western hemlock needles have one side that almost always faces up and another side that almost always faces down. Pine Siskins, Crossbills, Chickadees and Deer Mice eat the seeds. Habitat:Seedlings of Western Hemlock often begin life on the decaying wood of nurse logs. or stumps in the shade of Douglas Firs. These insects include hemlock looper larvae, silver-spotted tiger moth larvae, and hemlock sawfly larvae. Western hemlock has been used in bonsai. Seed can be stored up to 5 years at 32F (0C). usually flattened Leaves are needle-like with rounded tips. regions. Western hemlock is a shade-tolerant tree that can over rather than standing straight, like firs and spruces. Its small, woody cones are usually less than an inch (2.5cm) long. Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. Leaves have two white bands on the underside. Propagation by cuttings is difficult but possible with hormone treatment, misting and bottom heat. Their needles cover way more surface area than the needles of most other common conifers. hemlock is common in the lower The male cones are tiny and yellow and grow axillary on last year's growth. Insects and diseases that are found most frequently and/or that cause the most damage in our Canadian forests. Tune into the action at our Scottish osprey nest at Loch Arkaig. The Mountain Hemlock, Tsuga mertensiana, also occurs in our area mostly in the Mountains. Bark: Russet-brown. a young western hemlock growing on a rotting stump or log. Bracket fungi or conks cause the wood to decay. It is bounded by the Sitka Spruce Zone along the coast in the west and the Subalpine Zone in the Cascade Mountains in the east. They are flattened, blunt, unequal in size, and rather irregularly spaced compared with those of true firs and Douglas-firs.The tall, straight trunks have bark that is striped with vertical furrows, the striping finer than that of the Douglas-firs that may be growing next to them. Western hemlock is best suited to moister climates. Over time the nurse log or stump decays away and the. Trees, insects and diseases of Canada's forests, Needles clearly arranged in 2 ranks, with a few shorter ones on the upper side pressed against the twig, Upper surface shiny dark green and grooved, Whitened on lower surface with ill-defined lines of white dots on either side of the midvein, Cones may stay on the tree for 1 or 2 years, Seedlings commonly found on rotten logs, or in partially decomposed forest litter, Smooth when young, becoming deeply furrowed with flat-topped scaly ridges, Reddish-brown when young, becoming darker, Little contrast between sapwood and heartwood, Siding, flooring, plywood, railway ties, boxes, and crates, Open, conical, becoming irregular with age, Leading shoot oblique, bending away from prevailing wind, Principal branches coarse, spreading horizontally from the trunk, Drooping sprays of branchlets giving a graceful appearance, Varied soils and in the mountains up to 1500 m, Grows in pure stands, but usually mixed with western redcedar, Douglas-fir, grand fir, black cottonwood, and red alder. Be aware of this and consider watering your western hemlocks. On older trees, the bark is grayish-brown, thin, fissured, and has flat ridges. By October, the cones will open to release the seeds. Many other species colonize these habitats, and the organic material created by the decay or those plants and animals that do so eventually leads the soil to a point at which the first hemlocks colonize. This picture shows the tops of the needles.
The cones measure 0.6 to 1 inch long and 0.6 to 1 inch wide and appear terminally on the twigs.
Natives mostly used the wood for firewood. Tell us what's happening to the trees around you and help scientists track the effects of climate change on wildlife. The pitch of hemlock was used on the face, cosmetically and to prevent chapping. In the Landscape: The fine textured, fern-like foliage of Western Hemlock gives it a graceful, delicate appearance. Additionally, the buds of T. canadensis are ovoid and pointed, but those of T. heterophylla are globose. Hardy to USDA Zone 6 Native range from southern Alaska along Pacific coast to California, also southeast British Columbia south in Rocky Mountains to Montana. VIDEO created by Ryan Contreras for Landscape Plant Materials I: Deciduous Hardwoods and Conifers or Landscape Plant Materials II: Spring Flowering Trees and Shrubs a plant identification course offered by the Department of Horticulture at Oregon State University. Cones: Egg-shaped, light brown, 3/4 to 1" long, thin scales, wavy edges, located on the tips of branchlets form a strategic partnership called N.C. That means that, in theory, if forests are left alone and allowed to grow undisturbed indefinitely, Western Hemlock would be the dominant species. Western hemlock is a large, needled evergreen coniferoustree that is the state tree of Washington. Coast hemlock. Deer and elk browse on the foliage and stems.
find them even on the lower branches. develops small furrows There are few cultivars available in the nursery trade, possibly less than a half-dozen; in stark contrast to the large number of, The small seeds can germinate and grow on a range of substrates; mineral soil, moss, decaying litter, or rotten stumps. Propagation: For the best results, seeds of Western Hemlock should be stratified at 40F (4C) for 90 days. The female cones are small, about 2 cm in length, with prominent scales that are purplish-green when young and light brown when mature. Due to the shallow root system, wind damage and drought can be problematic. The bark was used to make a reddish brown dye or paint and as a tanning agent. The needles are quite small, 5-20 mm in length. Names:Heterophylla,Greek If the surface soil dries out, western hemlocks can die. often thriving in the shade of large Douglas connected to the .gov website. on official, secure websites. The surface below is grayish-green or blue and has two white bands. The bark on a young tree is thin, brown to black, and the upper layer is scaly. Use by Wildlife: Hemlocks are favorite nesting trees for many birds. campus: south of Peavy Hall, along the service road. The western hemlock may be confused with the eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). Each seed measures about 2-3 mm in length. The female cones are tiny and purple and appear on the distal ends of the twig. This simple asymmetry allows less evaporation (i.e., less water loss) on sunny dry days than if the stomata were evenly distributed on both the top and bottom of the needles. Things to know: This tree is found on moister sites, often along streams.
Western hemlock is primarily used for making lumber for building.
It is one of the best pulpwoods for making paper products. In normal years, the soil remains continuously moist or at least moist enough for these shallow-rooted trees to survive. for "variable leaves," aptly describes the variable length and Porcupines are known to gnaw on the bark. Distinctly stalked. The soil dried out from the heat and absence of rain. They usually start out growing slowly in the shade, much faster in full sunlight when an event occurs that opens it up to the sun. Where it grows: Western When young, can be sheared into a hedge. It is not always easy to distinguish T. heterophylla from T. canadensis on branchlet characteristics alone. *All photographs on this site were taken by Dana, Edmund or Sky Bressette unless otherwise noted. The gray bark Idaho Panhandle National Forests Supervisor's Office The cones mature in August, and the seeds ripen by late September. You can The apex of the cone may be rounded or pointed. Other common is an important timber species, used to make lumber and plywood. state The leaves are single soft flat needles that are arranged in spirals. 2296645), is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Woodland Trust. If you have a western hemlock,Tsuga heterophylla, growing in your yard, consider watering it this August and September!