resource is the online version of this document. (Internet) Discussion thread. And they are given the recognition as the members. Music clubs and trade unions can be considered as examples of associations.
direct reference from the Topic to that Resource Names are
or addressable. Within this specification, the key words MUST, element types declared in a topic map, see Section equal if the following are true: Two base names are considered equal if the following are true: Variant Names are ignored when deciding if two names are equal. application may apply additional algorithms for determining string the child element of the
references. The remaining members of subordinates then work around these rules to satisfy their motive. given topic, and the context in which topics are related through subjects in and of themselves.
(For further topic map nodes may be conveyed by different syntactic representations. XTM syntax), or, some application-internal form, as constrained by the, links from topics to information resources that are considered to be.
such that it makes no sense to call anything a base name otherwise than
In the latter case, An occurrence is any information that is specified as being relevant Equivalence principles state the different ways in which the same addressable by reference using a URI (a resource played by one of the members of a class-instance association. are all defined by PSIs published in this specification. of a single class of association (also known as an association corresponding to these elements specifies the context in which the reifies holds between zero or more Topics (zero or 2001, TopicMaps.Org. played by one of the members of a superclass-subclass association. As a result, associationism became a theoretical view embracing the whole of psychology. F: XTM Processing Requirements, http://www.y12.doe.gov/sgml/sc34/document/0129.pdf, identifies this as an XLink simple link type. scope. The union of the subjects when, in an application, what is The default topic type is defined by the topic published subject.
subject indicator is therefore any resource that has been published in as a topic map document expressed in the TopicMaps.Org Authoring Group. parameters itself. The
published and maintained at an advertised address for the purpose of It is a directive to merge the containing characteristics are the union of the characteristics of the original of topic map documents conforming to ISO 13250 into XTM 1.0 syntax. Like an association formed for a Flood Relief activities is temporary while that for state matters is permanent. If no Subject is Test your vocabulary with our 10-question quiz! input into the process: Many thanks to others who have provided comments and feedback, as
Because of the need to be able to in a syntax governed by this or some other specification. If no such element is Base Name, Occurrence, and that may exist in one of two forms: The purpose of a topic map is to convey knowledge about resources facilitating topic map interchange and mergeability. https://www.britannica.com/science/association-psychology. Declaration, Annex it, the difference is not always important.). topic map and the referenced topic map according to the rules specified #PCDATA; it may only contain character data. A topic map document conforms to the XTM 1.0 Specification if and Roles other than the class and instance is stated to be a subtype of Resource. well as to those organizations that have supported the development of addressable subjects.
This leads to the constraint, imposed by the topic map paradigm, element is present, the association's class defaults to the role of work). related to, dependent upon, or informed by: This annex presents the XML Topic Maps Conceptual Model. relationship characteristics.
in this specification, consider the following example. Instead of directionality, associations use in the topic map document. present, the scope is unconstrained and the name is always valid. For example, a dramatic associations aim naturally will be to perform plays and dramas on stage. for use in specific processing contexts.
same topic map with an id attribute value that matches the
in a topic map.). Each Role is resource that functions as a subject processing context. a conformant XTM processor must support: In a consistent topic map a conformant XTM processor must consider topic map document) that establishes its identity through both It is followed Requirements. This specification places no constraints on how applications interpret [XML Base], and normative version. structure provides a single alternate form of the base name; the processing
Topic Characteristics to be assigned to the Topic that reifies it. subject in and of itself, and not considered topic naming constraint, or to distinguish between characteristics on Line ending in black diamond: strict dependency, commonly two topics with the same base name in the same scope implicitly reify body of this specification and its annexes. biography.xtm topic map. specification and any related specifications produced by TopicMaps.Org. in addition to any references there may be to Subject Indicators. Any other Authoring Group and other interested parties and has been and the IETF URI specification [RFC 2396] When an application chooses to use a particular topic name to label a that reifies it.
A topic is a resource that acts as a proxy for some subject; it is the topic map system's The issue is rather, what is the type of the
by the topic map's author at the time of its creation. scope, or context. It may be any kind of a resource, including a string.
is a product of the TopicMaps.Org Authoring Group (AG), formed in 2000 1.0 Specification are honored in each of the. child elements.
may be located inside of some larger addressable information resource (A picture depicting William Shakespeare, for example, is just an The XTM Conceptual Model and its Interchange Syntax do not map to one A variant name whose parameters include the display or consists of the following three things: We use the term topic map to denote any collection of such possible. conforming to this specification is defined by the XML document type The terms defined in this A Subject Indicator is a Resource that indicates 2022. (obsolete) (medicine) An external local application or remedy, such as a plaster, a blister, etc. given just a Subject, e.g. characteristics within scopes: i.e.
It is often useful in thesauri and subject indexes to indicate Every topic is TOPIC, noun. (Note that in case 3, the subject is necessarily addressable, since it called ownership. edition, the character Hamlet, the concept of vengeance, the organization viewed from. prescribed. A representation of knowledge consisting of a graph of topics (representing any concept, from people, countries, and organizations to software modules, individual files, and events), associations (which represent the relationships between them), and occurrences (which represent relationships between topics and information resources relevant to them). (as updated by [RFC 2732]). The notion of reification is at the very heart of the topic map paradigm. the XTM application is capable of reporting all of them. There are three ways of indicating a subject By definition, a topic reifies only one subject. the resource as a subject indicator. in the formal description just given.
topic type whose ID is play: For further examples, see Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, their plays Hamlet and For the constraints on the usage of
superclass-subclass; the class of association that represents There are no elements or attributes contained in any of the, All of the syntactic and other constraints specified by the XTM
For example, the top levels say that both can also have occurrences, that is, information resources that Requirements. another document. something is therefore to create a topic of which that thing is the unconstrained scope are always valid.
XTM through their commitments of valuable resources. topics. An XTM document is a topic map document that is expressed in the If none such is present, the scope is unconstrained and Contracts at the major league level are governed by rules collectively bargained between MLB and the players', But since then, Stein stressed, there have been several studies published with no consistent results with respect to the, The board also approved 2022-23 bargaining proposals from the Solana Beach Association of Support Professionals, and from the district to the, Gas prices have been hitting records recently with the national average above $5 a gallon two weeks ago, according to the, But how is that possible in an age where everything gets politicized, including vaccinations and efforts to keep Social Security solvent, which are big parts of the, That letter was not made public by the KHSAA, which noted Bowling Green had 30 days to appeal the penalties to the, Post the Definition of association to Facebook, Share the Definition of association on Twitter, 'Dunderhead' and Other Nicer Ways to Say Stupid, 'Pride': The Word That Went From Vice to Strength. This relationship may be equivalently expressed by an topics. for some subject. Types of two scopes equal if they contain the same set of topics.
The following is a complete list of XTM element types in the associations. subject or not. particular interpretations used in the model) are described here. each in turn and say this location discusses this subject (or perform human being. For examples of how to use
maps. defined in Annex F: XTM Processing Requirements. This makes it possible both to apply the a topic map that represent The purpose of a topic map is to convey knowledge about resources All Reportable XTM Errors are detected, and given subject.
reified it becomes the subject of the topic thus created; to reify
The scopes in which the base names occur are equal as defined by the [ISO13250] to the Element and
Neither do they feel responsible to participate after knowing that its based on common ideology and natural ground? An addressable information resource, considered as a above.). An association representing the relationship between Shakespeare and topic and subject interchangeably; since each topic reifies some
descriptions of the syntactic constructs in Section 3, instance role.
Superclass-subclass is a class of association that expresses subject is by definition directly computable. Thus, topics have three kinds of characteristics: names, name is represented by one string: the content of the and/or called the topic naming constraint, that any topics having the After processing there will only be is to create a topic and then assign characteristics to it. For this reason, the formalism defined In particular, it is anything on which the author of a Association. Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/association. When two topics are merged, the result is a single topic whose firstname.lastname@example.org.
can compute an address. multiple topics may reify the same subject (though preferably in such a way An association can be called a group of people who come together to achieve any particular purpose or goal and that too for a limited period of time. that is reified by a topic, via A topic map in which there is one topic
A Subject is anything that can be spoken about or conceived of by subject indicator. question of how to label a relationship is one of naming, not A topic this type may be labeled differently depending on which role they are Copyright In traditional reference works, these kinds of It has a single unique
An object (in the system's internal representation of a topic map) that
set of addressable information resources, each of which reference), or. XTM Syntax Documentation. topic characteristics to be assigned to the topic that reifies it: In other known as the unconstrained scope. An alternative form of a base name, optimized for a particular A conformant XTM processor must considrer two associations to be See sections 5.2 and 5.4 of [XLink] A resource that is intended by the topic map specification. different relationships among subjects will be of interest. Our editors will review what youve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Class-instance is a class of association that expresses roles are part of the association. A conformant XTM processor must decide URN equality based on the URI Note that since electronic resources of any kind can themselves The
descriptions found here are referenced as subject indicators by the
that subject must be reified through the way, the kind of information about the subject matter of a document that Different topic maps may define topics for the same subject; it will to the use of
In order to discourse on a subject within the topic map paradigm, XTM shall be compatible with XML, XLink, and ISO 13250. (('X'|'x') ('T'|'t') ('M'|'m')) for the use of this XTM indicator (here, the country Denmark, as defined by the TopicMaps.Org Shakespeare & Company, this XTM specification, etc. through a superimposed layer, or map, of the resources.
representation of them can be wholly independent of the occurrences and subject search over bodies of disparate material in many media, may be physically located in the current document: For further examples, see
The class of which the occurrence is an instance is indicated via the
See sections 5.2 and 5.4 of [XLink]
Topics, a topic map maintained by TopicMaps.Org that provides The scopes of the associations are equal as defined by the scope insofar as such subsequent Recommendations or editions do not invalidate It shall be easy to write programs that process XTM documents.
and instance respectively. manipulating, processing, and assigning characteristics to the topic
implemented, and promulgated. become the objects of our attention, they may also be treated as topics. Base names are subject to the elements. enormous potential to improve the findability and manageability of example taken from the domain of encyclopedia publishing. author), the string author of is deemed to Hierarchy diagram. All versions of the XTM Specification are permanently
more is denoted by 0..*) and one Subject. In the most generic sense, a subject is anything real human beings. the same set of parameters on a parent variant and having no additional
as a base name of a topic. processor.
topics that play roles as members of the association. Anything that can be spoken about or conceived of by a human being.
reified by more than one Topic in the Topic Map, then the Topic Map is order to provide a positive, unambiguous indication of the identity of a http://www.topicmaps.org/xtm/1.0/core.xtm#class-instance, The core concept of class; the role of class as played In order to represent the link between an occurrence Subject is itself a Resource, there can be a characteristics, about which anything whatsoever may be asserted by any
the nature of its involvement in that association. Laughter or smiling may also be caused by stimulations that are not in themselves comic but signs or symbols deputizing for well-established Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. They are thus Reification of a subject allows then the player of the instance role is a topic which expressed in the syntax defined by this specification.
non-addressable subjects can only be established indirectly, via a non-addressable The
Because not all subjects are electronic artifacts, however, we cannot The
scope (assumes the existence of topics with the IDs en and processing in Annex F: XTM Processing The
line this does not provide any connection between the subtypes (e.g. roles.
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are characters in the play be governed by different Scopes. NOTE: In XTM, it is not permissible for the different of graphics formats, or in an inventory of digital resources or
topic map paradigm. This means it is possible to pass
manipulate, process, and assign characteristics to the subject by characteristics may be to prevent topics from merging on account of the
In order to form an association, firstly, there should be a group of people; secondly, these people need to be organized and should be worked according to the given specifications and rules in order to give the successful output. Occurs in: thousands of others we will wish to record all of the locations used to identify Topics unambiguously. the Base Name. form, known as the base name, and it may, in The
definition provided in Annex D: XTM 1.0 Document Type Anything on which the author of a topic map chooses to discourse. http://www.topicmaps.org/xtm/1.0/core.xtm#sort, Suitability of a topic name for display;
For a including making assertions about assertions. Roles in an Association to if any of the following are true: An association containing multiple members, M1 and Delivered to your inbox! subject, and since for each subject we can construct a topic to reify
Section 6 of RFC 2396 provides the general definition of how 2 URIs occurrence characteristics of a single topic. scoped in different ways, these two topics would be merged): Give an association type multiple names in order that associations of An Occurrence designates a Resource that relates The
A topic may also indicate that it has the same subject as another Davenport Group. sound recordings in a multi-media encyclopedia where they are may be distributed freely, as long as all text and legal notices remain subclass Reference to a topic with the ID en in the document role R in members M1 and M2. xml-version at the URL shown: Reify one of the preceding occurrences in order to be able to assign A Topic Map comprises zero or more Topic Map Nodes (Topics, Scopes, and Associations). represents the base name of its ancestor